On Carbon

 

Carbon – from Latin: carbo “coal”

Carbon – symbol C, atomic number 6 on the Periodic Table (group 14) because each carbon atom contains 6 protons

Carbon – each atom with 6 protons, but varying number of neutrons to form different isotopes, such as carbon-12 being almost 99% of the Earth’s carbon, and carbon-14, another naturally occurring form whose presence is used to determine ages (carbon dating)

Carbon – the 4th most abundant element in the universe by mass (after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen), but only the 15th most abundant element in the Earth’s crust

Carbon – whose density is slightly twice more than water, so it sinks

Carbon – which is 40 times more abundant in Earth’s water that in its atmosphere

 

Carbon – whose different physical forms are best known as charcoal, graphite, and diamond … each with different properties (from transparent to opaque, from hard to soft, from conductor to a resistor), thus different uses

Carbon as graphite, used in pencils (when combined with clay), in nuclear reactors to moderate the reaction in the reactor … plus is used in electric motors, dry batteries, electroplating, and manufacturing glass

Carbon as diamonds – a girl’s best friend – thus a story in itself

Carbon as the black pigment in printing ink, artist’s oil paint and watercolors, carbon paper, automotive finishes, India ink and laser printer toner – thus was also one of the first pigments for tattoos

Carbon, in the form of activated charcoal, – used as an absorbent and absorbent in filter material in gas masks, water purification, kitchen hoods, and in medicine to absorb odors, impurities, toxins, poisons, or gases

Carbon – with 4 available outer electrons to make covalent (sharing) chemical bonds with other atoms

Carbon – whose atom’s electron-sharing capability allows it for form around ten million different chemical compounds

Carbon – as a member of the vital carbon cycle moves from organism to organism and from life to nonlife

Carbon – whose cycle involves all life forms, thus is important in processes as cell respiration, photosynthesis, biosynthesis (life processes making new molecules), decay (decomposition), and combustion – plus is passed from one organism to another by eating

Carbon – which combines with oxygen and hydrogen to make carbohydrates (including sugars), proteins, fats, and alcohol – then add nitrogen (and sometimes sulfur) to make DNA, RNA, antibiotics, amino acids, and more

Carbon – the foundation of cellulose, an important carbohydrate for plants – thus an important component in cotton, hemp, and numerous fabrics (natural and synthetic) .. plus animal products as wool,, cashmere, silk, and leather

 

Carbon – the foundation for organic chemistry, thus the chemical basis of all known life

Carbon – the substance forming the primary ingredient in coal

Carbon – as danger when inhaling coal dust or soot in large quantities (as in Black Lung Disease)

Carbon – which unites with hydrogens to make hydrocarbons as plastics, refrigerants, solvents lubricants, paraffin, and fossil fuels such as petroleum, methane, butane, propane, octane, kerosene, natural gas (a mixture), and others.

Carbon – whose combination with silicon, tungsten, boron, or titanium, form carbides – which are among the hardest known materials, and are used as abrasives in cutting and grinding tools.

Carbon – used as a filler in rubber products such as tires and in plastics

Carbon – with one of the highest melting points plays a role in the high temperatures of manufacturing steel

 

Carbon – Its abundance in the Sun, stars, comets, asteroids, and other atmospheres stimulates our wonder if life exists elsewhere

Carbon – formed within the core of stars by fusing atoms of helium and hydrogen

Carbon – scattered in the universe as space dust from supernova explosions

 

Note: The reader may not remember this, but 3-5 years ago Jim Wheeler suggested I do a post about carbon. I immediately knew Jim’s idea was a great one, and started drafting. For a variety of reasons, the draft sat for a long time, but it remained in my eyesight. Not long ago I decided to make the post a reality. Jim, thanks for the suggestion – and this post is for you.

On 39

Image from cooltext.com

Image from cooltext.com

April 2, 1977 – that was the day of our wedding in a Cleveland (Ohio) suburb. It was cross-state from my home, but a good group of my family and friends attended.

I graduated the previous June, then came to Cincinnati for my first job. She graduated a few weeks before the wedding, then joined me in Cincinnati after our honeymoon in Hilton Head, SC.

Since then, she knows I love trivia – or in her terms – useless information – this is the perfect post for our celebration – more useless information the number 39 in one place than one ever imagined. Yep – I’m quite the romantic.

In Language
Тридесет девет (Bulgarian), Trenta nove (Italian), Tridsať deväť (Slovak), Trettio nio (Swedish), Ba mươi chín (Vietnamese), XXXIX (Roman numerals) … Know any others?

In Mathematics
39 – a natural number, an odd integer that is divisible by 1, 3, 13, and 39

39 – a distinct semiprime number, a Perfect totient number, a Perrin number, Størmer number

39 – the number of edges on a F26A graph

39 – the sum of consecutive primes (3 + 5 + 7 + 11 + 13) and the product of the second and sixth prime (3 x 13)

Image from cooltext.com

Image from cooltext.com

In Chemistry
39 – the atomic number of yttrium, whose neutrally charged atom has 39 protons and 39 electrons

In Biology
Brodmann area 39 (BA39) – part of the human brain’s parietal cortex

39 – Number of chromosome pairs in the cells of African wild dogs, Chickens, Coyotes, Dholes, Dingos, Dogs, Doves, and Golden Jackal

In Astronomy
39 – the Saros series number for 73 lunar eclipses over 1298.1 years

39 – the star number that is in many constellations including Andromeda, Aquarius, Auriga, Boötes,Cancer, Draco, Eridanus, and more

In Religion
39 – according to Halakha, the number of activity categories prohibited on Shabbat

39 – the number of mentions of work or labor in the Torah

39 – the actual number of lashes given by the Sanhedrin to a person meted the punishment of 40 lashes

39 – according to Protestant canon, the number of books in the Old Testament

39 – the number of statements in Anglican Church doctrine known as the Thirty-Nine Articles

Papyrus 39 – an early papyrus manuscript of the New Testament in Greek of the Gospel of John, but only John 8:14-22

Psalm 39 (Prayer for Wisdom and Forgiveness)

39 – other than numerical designations for pages, chapters, etc, 39 does not directly appear in the Bible

Image from cooltext.com

Image from cooltext.com

In Arts and Entertainment
39 – Comedian Jack Benny’s perpetual age after 40

39th Tony Awards – winner include Biloxi Blues, Big River, and A Day in the Death of Joe Egg

In Literature
The Thirty-Nine Steps – a novel by John Buchan (1915), which has been transformed into multiple films (info later), a play, a television feature, and a video game

The 39 Clues – a book series revolving around 39 clues hidden around the world.

Sonnet 39 by William Shakespeare

In Television
39 – the number of days contestants compete on Survivor (the CBS reality show)

39 – the number of episodes done the 1955-1956 season of The Honeymooners (commonly referred to as the “Classic 39”).

The 39 Steps is a 2008 BBC adventure feature-length adaptation of the John Buchan novel The Thirty-Nine Steps

39th Emmys – winners included Golden Girls (Best Comedy) and L.A. Law (Best Drama)

Image from cooltext.com

Image from cooltext.com

In Film
Based on The Thirty-Nine Steps – the novel by John Buchan (1915) – are four versions:

  • The 39 Steps (1935 film), directed by Alfred Hitchcock
  • The 39 Steps (1959 film), directed by Ralph Thomas
  • The Thirty Nine Steps (1978 film), directed by Don Sharp
  • The 39 Steps (2008 film), directed by James Hawes

Glorious 39 – a 2009 drama film set at the beginning of World War II

39th Academy Awards – Oscars go to A Man for All Seasons (Best Picture), Fred Zinnemann (Best Actor), and Elizabeth Taylor (Best Actress)

39 Steps (band), a rock band appearing in Woody Allen’s film Hannah and Her Sisters

In Music
39 – a song by The Cure and Tenacious D

FabricLive.39 – a 2008 mix album by DJ Yoda

Fabric 39 – a 2008 album by Robert Hood.

39 Steps – an album by guitarist John Abercrombie (2013)

Now 39 (aka Now That’s What I Call Music! 39) – the 39th release of music featuring top singles i the UK.

Symphony No. 39 in G minor – written by Joseph Haydn 1767/1768)

Image from cooltext.com

Image from cooltext.com

In World History
39 – Forty save one: the traditional number of times citizens of Ancient Rome hit their slaves

39 – the duration (in nanoseconds) of the nuclear reaction in the largest nuclear explosion ever (the Russian Tsar Bomba detonated on 30 October 1961)

39 – the number of Scud missiles Iraq fired at Israel during the Gulf War (1991)

Year 39 CE

  • A common year starting on Thursday
  • Tigellinus, minister and favorite of the Roman emperor Nero, is banished for adultery with Caligula’s sisters.
  • Philo leads a Jewish delegation to Rome to protest the anti-Jewish conditions in Alexandria.
  • The Trung Sisters resist the Chinese influences in Vietnam.
  • Born – Lucan (Roman poet) and Titus Flavius (future Roman emperor)
  • Deaths – Seneca the Elder (Roman rhetorician)

Year 39 BC

  • A common year starting on Friday, Saturday or Sunday or a leap year starting on Saturday
  • Sextus Pompey (self-proclaimed “son of Neptune”) controlled Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica
  • Born – Antonia Major (daughter of Mark Antony, grandmother of Nero and Messalin),
    Julia the Elder (daughter of Caesar Augustus)

In US History
39 – the number of signers to the United States Constitution

39th President of the United States – Jimmy Carter

Number 39 – the Federalist Paper essay by James Madison describing the nature of the United States government as a new idea. (The Conformity of the Plan to Republican Principles,
published January 18, 1788)

Title 39 – the United States Code outlining the role of United States Postal Service

39th Congress – served from 4 March 1865 – 4 March 1867 during the presidencies of Abraham Lincoln (1 month) and Andrew Johnson

Image from cooltext.com

Image from cooltext.com

In Sports
39 – the number of wooden boards normally consisting a bowling lane

Retired #39 Uniforms
MLB – Roy Campanella (Dodgers)
NFL – Larry Csonka (Dolphins)
NBA – none
NHL – Dominik Hašek (Sabres)

Super Bowl XXXIX – New England Patriots defeated the Philadelphia Eagles 24-21 on February 6, 2005 at Alltel Stadium in Jacksonville, Florida

NASCAR #39 – in 422 races, #39 won 4 races (all by Ryan Newman)

In Geography
39th Parallel north – crosses land in Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece, Turkey, Iran, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Iran, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, China, North Korea, Japan, and United States

39th Parallel south – crosses land in Australia, New Zealand, Chile, and Argentina

39th Meridian west – crosses land in Greenland and Brazil

39 Meridian east – crosses in Russia, Ukraine, Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Jordan, Saudi Arabia,Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Mozambique

National Highway 39 – found in Australia, Brazil, Canada, Czech Republic, France, Germany
India, Iran, Japan, South Korea, New Zealand, United Kingdom, and United States

Pier 39 – a shopping center and popular tourist attraction built on a pier in San Francisco, California

I-39 – a US interstate highway from Normal, Illinois to Wausau, Wisconsin

In Miscellaneous
The 39 Steps is video game adaptation of Buchan’s book

39 – the international code for direct-dialed phone calls to Italy

ICL Series 39 – a range of mainframe and minicomputer computer systems released by the UK manufacturer ICL in 1985

Curse of 39 – the belief in some parts of Afghanistan that the number 39 is cursed or a badge of shame associated with prostitution

39 – Japanese Internet chat slang for “Thank You” when written with numbers (3=San 9=Kyuu)

Lace – the traditional gift for a 39th wedding anniversary

On a Two-fer Monday

Another weekend has passed, so how was yours?

Although we got some time on the ballroom floor, we were also dealing with my mother-in-law’s return to the hospital – thus a reason why I’m behind on my reading.

Meanwhile, Saturday was cool and damp …. but we get several days of improvement before a cold snap arrives later this week … which also means I must tackle the leaves while the temps are reasonable and before the next load falls.

Here are some celebration notes for your personal calendar.

  • (Week) Food & Drug Interactions Awareness Week, Character Counts Week, Chemistry Week, Forest Products Week, Friends of Libraries Week, Massage Therapy Week, Nuclear Science Week, Kraut Sandwich Week
  • (Mon) Pumpkin Cheesecake Day, Babbling Day, Clean Your Virtual Desktop Day, Info Overload Day, Iodine Deficiency Disorder Prevention Day, Reptile Awareness Day
  • (Tues) Nut Day, Stuttering Awareness Day
  • (Wed) Boston Creme Pie Day, Mole Day, Swallows Leave Capistrano Day
  • (Thurs) Bologna Day, Black Cat Day, Food Day, United Nations (UN) Day, World Development Information Day

Here are two humorous bits to start your week – one for the daring and one for all. Did you celebrate No Beard Day last Friday? On the flip side of the coin, one can find people with beards doing weird things. Sure makes we wonder if this also serves as to kickoff Food & Drug Interaction Week.

Meanwhile, enjoy this domino effect from Mouse. Have a good week!