# On 6

Image from sportsclipart.com

Six (6) is one of those numbers that we can associate with many things, so I didn’t intend to capture everything about it. Nonetheless, it’s a special number that I honor in this post, so feel free to add additional factoids about 6.

In Mathematics

• 6 is a composite number, perfect number, Granville number, congruent number, discrete biprime number, unitary perfect number, harmonic divisor number, all-Harshad number, octahedral number, triangular number, and a superior highly composite number
• 6 is the smallest positive integer which is neither a square number nor a prime number
• 6 has proper divisors (1, 2 and 3) … and is divisible by itself
• 6 equals the sum and the product of its proper divisors, which are three consecutive positive numbers (1, 2, 3)
• A 6-sided polygon is a hexagon (including a cube) , but not all hexagons are a cube
• There are 6 basic trigonometric functions
• In base 6, 10 is the equivalent of 6
• 6 squared is 36, but 6 to the 6th power is 46656, yet the square root of 6 is 2.44948974278

In Science

• A neutral atom of carbon contains 6 protons and 6 electrons
• The cells of a beehive are 6-sided

Benzene Ring

• Insects have 6 legs
• A benzene molecule has a ring of 6 carbon atoms
• Snowflakes have six-fold symmetry
• A hexamer is an oligomer made of six subunits
• Messier object M6 is in the constellation Scorpius, and is also known as the Butterfly Cluster
• The New General Catalogue object (NGC 6) a spiral galaxy in the constellation Andromeda
• There are 6 types of quarks and 6 types of leptons in particle physics
• The six-vertex model has 6 possible configurations of arrows at each vertex
• There are six phases in pandemic influenza
• Human Chromosome 6 has over 170 million base pairs and is associated with epilepsy, Parkinson disease, and Guillain-Barre Syndrome

In Musical Instruments

• A standard guitar has 6 strings
• Most woodwind instruments have 6 basic holes or keys
• There are 6 semitones in a tritone

In Entertainment

• Take 6 is a Grammy Award winning Christian vocal jazz group
• Les Six (“The Six” in English) was a group consisting of the French composers Georges Auric, Louis Durey, Arthur Honegger, Darius Milhaud, FrancisPoulencandGermaineTailleferre in the 1920s

Image from vector-images.com

• Bands with the number 6/six in their name include Six Organs of Admittance, 6 O’clock Saints, Electric Six, Eve 6, Los Xey (seiis Basque for “six”), Out On Blue Six, Six In Six, Sixpence None the Richer, Slant 6, Vanity 6, and You Me At Six
• #6 is the pseudonym of American musician Shawn Crahan, when performing with the band Slipknot
• Six geese a-laying were given as a present on the sixth day in the popular Christmas carol, “The Twelve Days of Christmas”
• Johann Pachelbel’ composed Hexachordum Apollinis into 6 arias
• Beethoven, Bruckner, Haydn, Mahler, Mozart, Tchaikovsky, and probably others composed notable Sixth Symphonies
• Six Pack is a ZZ Top album
• Six Degrees Of Inner Turbulence, the sixth album by Dream Theater, includes six songs with the sixth song tells the stories of six individuals suffering from various mental illnesses
• Bionic Six is an animated series that lasted 2 years (65 episodes)
• Number 6 is a character in the movie I Am Number Four
• Films include Six Pack is a 1982 comedy drama, Six-Pack a 2000 thrilled, and Sixpack a 2011 Finnish comedy

In Religion

• 6 Points on a Star of David

Interfaith graphic by Justice St. Rain (Bahá’í Community) of Interfaith Resources

• 6 Orders of the Mishnah
• 6 Symbolic foods placed on the Passover Seder Plate
• Yahweh took 6 days to create the world in the Old Testament Book of Genesis; humankind was created on day 6
• The Jewish holiday of Shavuot starts on the sixth day of the Hebrew month of Sivan
• The Six Articles of Belief (Islam)
• Fasting six days of Shawwal (Islam)
• A trasarenu is the combination of 6 celestial paramānus (atoms) (Hinduism)

In Language and Culture

• Other words for six include VI (Roman numerals), zes (Dutch), sei (Italian), seks (Norwegian), shesh (Hebrew), kuusi (Finnish), sita (Swahili), anim (Filipino)
• Hexa is classical Greek for “six”, thus terms as hexagon, hexahedron, hex nut
• The prefix hexa- also occurs in the systematic name of many chemical compounds, such as “hexamethyl”
“Hexadecimal” combines hexa- with the Latinate decimal to name a number base of 16
• Hexameter is a poetic form consisting of 6 feet per line
• Sex- is a Latin prefix meaning “six”. Thus: sextet, sextuplets, sexdactyly (6 fingers), sextant (whose shape forms one-sixth of a circle)
• Senary is the adjective meaning “sixth”
• 6 is a lucky number in Chinese culture
• No more than 6 degrees of separation between any two people
• There are 6 tastes in traditional Indian Medicine called Ayurveda: sweet, sour, salty, bitter, pungent, and astringent
• Coffins are buried 6 feet below ground, thus 6 feet under

In History

• The Six Dynasties form part of Chinese history
• The Birmingham Six were held in prison for 16 years
• 6 facts about the sixth day of the sixth month (June 6th): D-Day (WW II), RFK assassination, National Day of Sweden, Orwell’s 1984 first published, first drive-in theater opened in the US, Queensland established
Augustus ruled the Roman Empire during both 6 BC and 6 CE
• In the ancient Roman calendar, Sextilis was the sixth month, but after the Julian reform, June became the sixth month and Sextilis was renamed August
• Sextidi was the sixth day of the decade in the French Revolutionary calendar

In Sports

• The National Basketball Association has 6 divisions
• The National Hockey League started with 6 teams

From allfreevectors.com

• Smaller high schools play 6-man football (not the traditional 11-man)
• In soccer, the number of substitutes combined by both teams, that are allowed in the game
• Volleyball and ice hockey play with 6 players on each side
• A team earns 6 points for a touchdown American and Canadian football
• Australian Rules football teams earn six points for a goal
• In cricket, team scores 6 runs when the shot a “six/sixer” when the ball clears the boundary without bouncing
• In NASCAR, driven by 37 different drivers in 322 races, but only Cale Yarborough drove #6 into the winner’s circle (and only once)
• Tour de France has 6 mountain stages
• Retired #6 sports jerseys
• MLB: Bobby Cox, Steve Garvey, Al Kaline, Stan Musial, Tony Oliva, Johnny Pesky, Joe Torre
• NFL: None
• NBA: Walter Davis, Julius Irving, Avery Johnson, Bill Russell, and Orlando Magic and Sacramento Kings fans
• NHL: Ace Bailey

In Technology

• On most phones, letter M, N, O are found on the 6 key
• The “6-meter band” in amateur radio includes the frequencies from 50 to 54 MHz
• 6 is the resin identification code used in recycling to identify polystyrene
• Perl 6 is a programming language

Miscellaneous

• “Six” is used as an informal slang term for the British Secret Intelligence Service, MI6
• Six Flags amusement parks and theme park
• Trivial Pursuit games have 6 categories
• The highest number on one end of a standard domino

A Golomb Ruler from Wikipedia

• Odds of rolling a 6 drastically changes with the number of dice: (1) 1 of 6 (16.7%) , (2) 5 of 36 (13.9%), and (3) 10 of 216 (4.6%)
• A Golomb ruler of length 6 is a “perfect ruler”
• The Six Restaurant (Los Angeles)
• Six Sigma is a statistical modeling process aimed at quality improvement
• International maritime signal flag for 6
• 6 Cardinal Directions: north, south, east, west, up, and down
• 6 years is the standard term for a United States senator
• 6-pack is a common form of packaging for 6 bottles or cans of drink, number of fundamental flight instruments lumped together on a cockpit display, other assemblages of six items, defined abdominal muscles (rectus abdominis, external and internal obliques, & transverse abdominis), getting hit in the face by a spiked volleyball
• 6 is a common reference to car engines, such as straight 6, line-in 6, slant 6, and flat 6
• A Braille cell is based on 6 dots
• Mario must collect 6 Royal Stickers in the Nintendo 3DS game Paper Mario: Sticker Star
• Extra-sensory perception is sometimes called the “sixth sense”, which was also a 1999 movie featuring Bruce Willis and Haley Joel Osment

The Occasion
I’ve interrupted the Pause button for an important announcement. A mere 6 years ago. A Frank Angle started August 28, 2008. To anyone who has ever visited my little corner of the world, thank you. To those who take to time to comment, many more thanks. To those who regularly return, I’m forever grateful. So get a drink of choice (alcoholic or nonalcoholic), enjoy same snacks, leave a song (if you desire), add a factoid, tell your friends to visit, and most importantly …  mingle with others …. and I hope you return on September 1st.

Coincidentally … and yes … coincidentally … August 28th is the birthday of the reason for my prosthetic hand.

# On 36

The following past post marked the occasion of our 36th wedding anniversary. Given that I also enjoy saluting numbers, here’s my toast to 36.

In Mathematics

• Divisible by 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 18, 36
• Is a perfect square (of ±6), a triangular number, a square triangular number, a 13-gonal number, a highly composite number, a semiperfect number, a Harshad number, an Erdős–Woods number, the sum of a twin price, and the sum of 1-cubed + 2-cubed + 3-cubed
• The degrees of the interior angle of a regular pentagram
• The number of possible outcomes when rolling two dice
• Number of sides on the truncated cube and the truncated octahedron
• 36 squared is 1296
• The sum of integers 1 to 36 = 666

In Chemistry
Atomic number of Krypton, whose neutrally charged atom has 36 protons and 36 electrons

In Space

• Messier object M36 is in the constellation Auriga
• New General Catalogue (NGC) object 36 is a spiral galaxy in the constellation Pisces
• 36 Cancri is an A-class star in the constellation Cancer.
• Discoverer 36, also known as Corona 9029, was an American optical reconnaissance satellite launched in 1961\
• Soyuz 36 spaceflight was in 1980
• Expedition 36 to the International Space Station is scheduled to begin in May 2013

In Standards

• In the US (and very few other countries) 36 inches = 1 yard
• IBM System/36, a minicomputer
• Refers to a 36 inches long pipe wrench
• In the UK, a standard beer barrel is 36 UK gallons, about 163.7 liters
• Many early computers featured a 36-bit word length
• ASCII code for the symbol ‘\$
• The number of characters required to store the display name of a UUID or GUID (e.g., 00000000-0000-0000-C000-000000000046)
• IBM System/36 (S36) was a minicomputer marketed from 1983-2000
• 36-bit computer architecture
• In temperatures, 36 C = 96.8 F, but 36 F = 2.2 C

In Music

• 36 is a punk band
• 36th Grammy Awards were in 1994 with Whitney Houston as the big winner
• 36D is a song written by Paul Heaton and Dave Rotheray and performed by The Beautiful South.
• 6-C is an album by Fifth Column
• Mozart wrote Symphony #36 in 1783
• Berlin 36 is a 2009 German film about a Jewish athlete in the 1936 Olympics

In Art

• 36 Views of Mount Fuji
• 36 Views of the Eiffel Tower

In Literature

In Film

• The 36th Chamber of Shaolin (1978) is a kung fu film
• 36 is a movie (2010) directed by Martin Campbell
• 36th Academy Awards held in 1964 with Best Picture nominations to Cleopatra, How the West Was Won, Lillies in the Field, America America, and Tom Jones (winner)
• 36 Pasos (36 Steps) is a 2006 Argentine horror film
• North of 36 is a 1924 silent film Western Drama

In Entertainment

• Watch Channel 36 in Charlotte, Lexington (KY), Oakland
• Canal 36 is a television station in Honduras
• The Incubator was the 36th episode of M.A.S.H, which aired December 1, 1973
• 36 is a sports documentary show on NBC Sports Network and TSN
• The 36th season of Saturday Night Live was 2010-2011
• The game of roulette has ’36’ numbers on the playing grid and roulette wheel
• Rollorpoker, a roulette-based game, uses ‘36’ playing cards on the wheel and playing grid, instead of numbers

In Language
Thirty six, trente six, dreißig sechs, kolmekymmentä kuusi, tretti seks, talatin da shida, XXXVI

In Sports

• Retired jerseys of MLB’s Robin Roberts (Phillies) and Gaylord Perry (Giants), NFL’s Mack Lee Hill (Chiefs), and NBA’s Lloyd Neal (Trailblazers)
• In NASCAR, #36 has raced 633, never won, finished in the top 5 32 times, and driven the most by Ken Schrader (106)
• Super Bowl XXXVI: New England Patriots 20 – St. Louis Rams 17, played at the Louisiana Superdome on February 3, 2002

In Religion

• In the Jewish tradition, light created by God on the first day of creation shone for 36 hours
• The Torah commands love, respect, and protect the strange 36 times
• There are 36 righteous people in every generation
• 36 candles are in a menorah over 8 days
• In the Māori legend, 36 gods were involve creating the first human before receving the breath of life from Tāne
• In Shavism, 36 tattvas describe the internal aspects of creation
• In Christianity, Psalm 36

In US History

• Nevada is the 36th state (1864)
• Lyndon B. Johnson served as the 36th US president
• The 36th US Congress (1859-1861) during the last two years of James Buchanan’s presidency
• Alexander Hamilton wrote Federalist Papers 36, The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation, the last of the seven papers on taxation

In World History Year 36 BC

• Buddhist calendar year 509, Korean calendar year 2298, Thai solar calendar year 508, Chinese calendar year 2601/2661 to 2602/2662
• Mark Antony married Cleopatra VII while still married to Octavia

In World History Year 36 CE

• A leap year that started on a Saturday
• Bengali calendar year -577, Berber calendar 986, and Iranian calendar year 586 BP – 585 BP
• Historical figures include Pontius Pilot, Emporer Tiberius, and Herod Antipus
• Some say this is the year of Jesus’ crucifixion

In Geography

• The 36th parallel south only across land in Australia, New Zealand, Chile, and Argentina
• The 36th meridian east passes through Russia, Ukraine, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Mozambique
• US Route 36 runs 1,414 miles from Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado to Uhrichsville, Ohio

• The Thirty-Six Bisto in Anchorage, Alaska
• Thirty-Six, a camera boutique in Singapore
• Thirty-Six Peonies Publishing Company
• Studio Thirty-Six – spa, beauty, and personal treatment in Santa Rosa, California

Miscellaneous

• A perfect score on the ACT
• In French-speaking countries, 36 is often used as a placeholder number
• International phone code for Hungary
• The 36 pounder long gun was the largest piece of naval artillery for French war ships in its time
• TI-36 calculator made in 1986
• The 36 Boys were a gang of primarily Turkish immigrants from Berlin-Kreuzberg involved in criminal activities
• The 36-line Bible, the second printed edition of the Bible and known as the “Bamberg Bible”, is named after its 36 lines of text on each page. FYI: The Gutenberg Bible had 42 lines per page

# On 35

My wife and I celebrated our 35th anniversary this past April.  Here’s a toast to more than you ever wanted to know about 35.

In Mathematics

• 35 is a tetrahedral number, centered cube number, a pentagonal number, a highly cototient number, Størmer number, and apentatope number
• Divisible by 1, 5, 7, 35
• The highest number one can count to on one’s fingers using base 6
• Squared is 1225, but its square root is 5.92
• A 35-sided polygon is a triacontakaipentagon (impress your friends with that one)

In Science

• Atomic number of bromine, whose neutral atom has 35 protons and 35 electrons
• Messier object M35, a magnitude 5.5 open cluster in the constellation Gemini
• The New General Catalogue object NGC 35, a galaxy in the constellation Cetus
• The Saros number of the solar eclipse series which began on -1870 (1871 BC) July 25 and ended on -373 (374 BC) January 9. The duration of Saros series 35 was 1496.5 years, and it contained 84 solar eclipses
• The Saros number of the lunar eclipse series which began on -1550 (1551 BC) May 14 and ended on -252 (253 BC) July 1. The duration of Saros series 35 was 1298.1 years, and it contained 73 lunar eclipses
• 35 degrees F = 1.67 degrees C, but 35 degrees C = 95 degrees F
• During the 35th week of pregnancy, the average human baby weights 6 pounds, measures 12 inches, and has fully developed lungs

In Entertainment

• 35 c, a song by Jagúar from the album Jagúar
• XXXV (album), the thirty-fifth anniversary album by folk rock band Fairport Convention
• 35 is the title of a book written by Casper Schipper
• Lawrence of Arabia wins Best Picture at the 35th Academy Awards (1963)
• Cheers and Hill Street Blues win awards at the 35th Primetime Emmy Awards (1983)
• 80/35 Festival in Des Moines, Iowa
• Television Channel 35 are in Richmond, Erie, and Orlando

In Sports

• Retired MLB jerseys: Randy Jones (Padres), Phil Niekro (Braves), Frank Thomas (White Sox)
• Retired NHL jersey: Tony Esposito (Blackhawks)
• Retired NBA jerseys: Roger Brown (Pacers), Reggie Lewis (Celtics), and Darryl Griffith (Jazz)
• Super Bowl XXXV: Held in Tampa, Florida, Baltimore Ravens defeated the NY Giants 34-7
• In NASCAR, #35 has started 109 races with 0 wins and 6 top five finishes (all by Benny Parsons)

In Geography
Interstate 35 runs from Texas to Minnesota and the only freeway to have East–West divisions (in two places, the Twin Cities and the DFW Metroplex

U.S. Route 35 (a highway I have been on many times) is a north–south highway running northwest-southeast for approximately 412 miles (663 km) from northern Michigan City, Indiana to the western suburbs of Charleston, West Virginia.

In US

• The minimum age of candidates for election to the United States Presidency
• 35th U.S. Congress met from March 4, 1857 to March 3, 1859, during the first two years of James Buchanan’s presidency
• John F. Kennedy, the 35th US president

Miscellaneous

• Licence Plate code of Izmir/Turkey
• Highway 35 World Race is a series of Hot Wheels
• The F-35 Lightning II Aircraft
• 35 Israeli soldiers died in a convoy during the 1948 war of independence
• Italy hosted the 35th G8 Summit (2009)
• 35 mm film is the basic film gauge most commonly used film in photography and motion pictures (for we Americans, 35 mm = 1.377953 inches)
• 35 Raceway claims to have the fastest 1/5 mile dirt rack in the Midwest
• Cinema 35 Drive-In in Eaton, Ohio used to show soft porn
• STS-35 was on the space shuttle Columbia (1990)
• Smith & Wesson produced a 35-caliber pistol
• Vera Renczi, allegedly murdered 35 individuals in the 1920s (including husbands, lovers, and a son) with arsenic

• A common year starting on Saturday
• Buddhist calendar year 579, Berber calendar year 985, Korean calendar year 2368
• Tiridates III becomes king of Parthia

In Year 35 BC

• Started either on a Thursday or Friday or a leap year starting on Wednesday, Thursday or Friday (sources differ because of what is known as leap year error)
• Holocene calendar year 9966, Burmese calendar year -672
• Marcus Titius arrived in Syria with a large army and marched to Asia Minor

# On 58

I’m 58, but since 59 is close, my chances to post this are diminishing. Whether it’s fifty eight, elli sekiz, cinquanta otto, femti åtte, Vijftig acht, or LVIII – it’s time for bountiful trivia buffet about 58.

In Mathematics

• Fifty-eight is the sum of the first seven prime numbers, an 11-gonal number, and a Smith number
• Given 58, the Mertens function returns 0
• There is no solution to the equation x – φ(x) = 58, making 58 a noncototient
• Divisible by 1, 2, 29, and 58

In Science

• The atomic number of cerium, a lanthanide whose neutral atom contains 58 protons and 58 electrons
• The minimum wind speed (mph) needed to issue a Severe Thunderstorm Warning
• Messier object M58, a magnitude 11.0 galaxy in the constellation Virgo
• The Saros number of the solar eclipse series that began on 1114 BC BC June and ended on 166 July – 1280.1 years, and with 72 solar eclipses
• 58 degrees C is 134 degrees F, but 58 F = 14 C

In Music

• John Cage CD “Fifty-Eight”
• Fifty-Eight Now Nine, a collection of songs by Esther Lee
• 58 was the name of a side project invovling Nikki Sixx of Mötley Crüe. They covered the song “Alone Again (Naturally)”
• Band “Spur 58”
• “58 Poems” sang by Chicago

In Literature

• Book: 58 Lonely Men: Southern Federal Judges and School Desegregation is about 58 judges in the South during the Brown vs. Board of Education decision
• Shakespeare’s Sonnet 58

In Entertainment

• Channel 58: Milwaukee, Sacramento, and Tucson, Macon, Los Angeles, Charlotte, Dallas, Denver, Elkhart, Nashville, Toledo
• In the popular TV show Spongebob Squarepants, Patrick claims that “58 is like the luckiest number ever”
• The 58th Academy Awards (1986) honored films as Cocoon, Out of Africa, Prizzi’s Honor, The Color Purple, and Back to the Future
• Film 58 focuses on poverty and is based on living Isaiah 58 (trailer)

In Sports

• Longest headed goal is 58 meters
• In the NBA, the most points ever scored in a fourth quarter was 58 by the Buffalo Braves (at Boston Celtics), Oct. 20, 1972
• The Most points in a game by a rookie player: Wilt Chamberlain, 58: Philadelphia vs. Detroit, Jan. 25, 1960, and Philadelphia. vs. New York Knicks, Feb. 21, 1960
• Retired NFL Jersey: Derrick Thomas (Chiefs)
• In NASCAR, #58 has raced in only 41 races (0 wins, led 2 laps, and 1 top 10 finish) and driven most by Ricky Craven and Hut Stricklin

In Geography

• The code for international direct dial phone calls to Venezuela
• The number of counties in California
• 58th west meridian extends north-south through Greenland, eastern Canada, Guyana, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina, Falkland Islands, South Shetland Islands, and Antarctica; plus forms the great circle with the 122 east meridian
• 58th east meridian extends north-south through Russia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Iran, Oman, a lot of water, and Antarctica; plus forms the great circle with the 122 east meridian
• 58th parallel north runs through Norway, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia, Russia, United States (Alaska), Canada, and Scotland
• 58th parallel south only crosses oceans, thus no land
• A section of 58th Street in Manhattan is known as Designer’s Way

• Roman emperor Nero and Marcus Valerius Messalla Corvinus become Roman consuls.
• The friendship between Nero and Marcus Salvius Otho ends when they both fall in love with Poppea Sabina, and Otho is sent to Lusitania as governor
• In Thuringia, conflict between two Germanic tribes erupts over access to water
• Start of Yongping era of the Chinese Han Dynasty
• Ming-Ti, new emperor of China, introduces Buddhism to China and the West Indus Valley
• In China, sacrifices to Confucius are ordered in all government schools

In Year 58 BC

• At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Piso and Gabinius
• Cyprus becomes a Roman province
• First year of Julius Caesar’s Gallic Wars
• Romans build a 19-mile earthwork, complete with fortifications and watchtowers, between Lake Geneva and the Jura Mountains
• Berenice IV becomes queen of Egypt after temporarily dethroning her father, Ptolemy XII Auletes

Miscellaneous

• The number of usable cells on a Hexxagon game board
• Associated with misfortune in many civilizations native to either Central America or Southern America due to their beliefs in the original 58 sins, the number came to symbolize curses and bad luck
• The Fifty-eighth United States Congress (with a Republican majority) met from March 4, 1903 to March 4, 1905, during the third and fourth years of Theodore Roosevelt’s presidency
• Buy a 58-gallon rain barrel here
• This is my 830th post, but 830 is not divisible by 58