On 42

Saluting 42 means a celebration!

In Language

42 – forty-two, shi ni (Japanese), berrogeita bi (Basque), toogfyrre (Danish), corenta e dous (Galician), četrdesmit divi (Latvian), sorok dva (Ukrainian), XLII (Roman numerals)

In Mathematics

42 – an odd integer, perfect number, Catalan number, pronic number, abundant number, sphenic number, pseudoperfect number,alternating sign matrix number, and am open meandric number

42 – divisible by 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 14, 21, 42

42 – the sum of the first 6 positive even numbers (2, 3, 6, 8, 10, 12)

In Science

42 – the atomic number of the element molybdenum (Mo), whose neutrally charged atom has 42 protons and 42 electrons

42 amu – the atomic mass of a naturally occurring stable isotope of calcium

42 degrees – the angle (rounded) a rainbow appears

42 – the normal number of chromosomes in each cell of wheat, rats, Rhesus Monkeys, wolverines, oats, fossas, and giant pandas

42 minutes – the theorized time it would take to fall through a vacuum tube from one side of Earth to the other through the center

42 – Determined by the Babylonians, the number of times Mars orbits the Sun in 79 years

M42 – a Messier object nebula in the constellation Orion

NGC 42 – New General Catalogue object, a spiral galaxy in the constellation Pegasus.

Kepler-42 – a red dwarf in the constellation Cygnus

42 Isis – a large main-belt asteroid

In Technology

42 – 00101010 (in binary code)

42 – an important number used by computer programmers

42 – the second 16-bit word in every TIFF file

42 – the root directory inode number in the reiser4 file system

42 days – the default password expiration policy for Microsoft Windows domains

ASCII code 42 – for the asterisk symbol, being a wildcard for everything.

ASCII “FORTYtwo” – identifies directory blocks.

In Religion

Interfaith graphic by Justice St. Rain (Bahá’í Community) of Interfaith Resources

Christianity

  • 42 generations (names) in the Gospel of Matthew’s version of the Genealogy of Jesus
  • 42 months the Beast will hold dominion over the Earth (Revelation 13:5);
  • 42 men of Beth-azmaveth were counted in the census of men of Israel upon return from exile
  • God sent bears to maul 42 of the teenage boys who mocked Elisha for his baldness (2 Kings 2:23)
  • The Gutenberg Bible is also known as the “42-line Bible” it contained 42 lines per page.
  • The Forty-Two Articles (1552), mainly by Thomas Cranmer, were intended to summarize Anglican doctrine

Others

  • “Forty-Two Lettered Name” given to God by Rab in 3rd-century Judaism
    The Sutra of 42 Sections – a Buddhist scripture
  • 42 – the number associated with God creating the Universe in Kabbalistic tradition

In Popular culture

T42 – the answer to the ultimate question of life in the Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy

People who died at age 42: Robert F Kennedy, Elvis Presley, Prince Albert, Queen Mary I, Gilda Radner, Gary Coleman, Ted Bundy

42 – a number Lewis Carroll frequently used in his writings

  • 42 illustrations Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland
  • Rule Forty-two in Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland – “All persons more than a mile high to leave the court”
  • Rule 42 of the Code in the preface to The Hunting of the Snark:
  • “No one shall speak to the Man at the Helm”
  • “forty-two boxes, all carefully packed – The Hunting of the Snark”
  • 42 x 42 x 42 – the combined ages of the White Queen and Red Queen in Through the Looking Glass

In Music

Level 42 – an English pop/rock music band

42 – a song by Coldplay (2008) & Mumford and Sons (2018)

42nd Street – a Tony Award winning Broadway musical

In Television and Film

The Kumars at No. 42 – an awarding winner television series on British telly

“42” – an episode of Doctor Who, set in real time lasting approximately 42 minutes.

42 – the number of threads in Watson’s avatar (the IBM computer competed on Jeopardy!)

42 – a film on the life of American baseball player Jackie Robinson.

In Video games

42 Entertainment – a company creating reality games

Tokyo 42, Squadron 42 – video games

In Sports

From allfreevectors.com

42 – the now retired number of Jackie Robinson that MLB permanently retired

The last professional baseball player to wear 42 – Mariano Rivera (New York Yankees)

Retired Numbers in Professional Sports

  • MLB – Jackie Robinson (Dodgers), Mariano Rivera (Yankees), Bruce Sutter (Cardinals)
  • NBA – Nate Thurmond (Cavs, Warriors), James Worthy (Lakers), Connie Hawkins (Suns)
  • NFL – Sid Luckman (Bears), Charlie Conerly (Giants), Ronnie Lott (49ers)
  • NHL – none

42 – the number of laws in cricket

Rule 42 – the historic name of a Gaelic Athletic Association rule prohibiting the playing of “foreign sports”

Super Bowl LXII – Giants defeat the Patriots (17-14) in Glendale, Arizona

In Culture

42 – an unlucky number In Japanese culture because shi ni (four two)—sound like the word “dying”

42 questions – In Egyptian mythology, the questions asked of persons making their journey through Death

42 in Chinese reads sì èr, which is very close to shì a that means ‘yes’ – so some Chinese text 42 for ‘yes’.

In US History

42nd state – Washington (1889)

42nd President – Bill Clinton (elected 1992)

42nd Congress – Served 1871-1873 during the third and fourth year of Ulysses Grant presidency

Miscellaneous

42 – the historic country calling code for the former country of Czechoslovakia.

42 – number of US gallons in a barrel of oil

Tower 42 – a skyscraper in London that used called the NatWest Tower

42nd Street – New York City location for the Chrysler Building, Grand Central Terminal, the main branch of the New York Public Library, Times Square, the UN Headquarters, some Broadway theaters, and the Port Authority Bus Terminal

Forty-Two Gang – A Chicago teen street gang since Prohibition

42 Center of Excellence for Artificial Intelligence, based in Vienna, Austria

42 – the name of the private computer science school located in Paris, France and Fremont, California

42 – the number of elevators in Rockefeller Center (New York City)

42 – the number of years of our 42nd wedding anniversary, which we celebrated during the recent blog break on a cruise ship with a sea day (2 April 2019).

Top Songs on Our Wedding Day (2 April 1977)

On Verification

Embed from Getty Images

 

With people resisting vaccines returning to the news, I had to bump this post forward on my posting timetable.

Many definitions of science exists. Most, if not all, are variations on a theme. Mine is simple: The search for the explanation of what we observe in nature. Search, explanation, observe, and nature serve as the four key words defining science. I think of them as the what, why, how, and where of science.

To me, words as hypothesis, scientific method, controls, and others are important, but they also cloud a person’s impression with terms they lead them to misconceptions by over-generalizing.. But search, explanation, observe, and nature tells important aspect of what, why, who, and where of science.

That being said, the how of science is also important. From accurately recording data from direct observations to the following proper procedures in an experiment, the scientific process is a playbook with rules – and yes, there are officials that will examine what is done in order to verify the results and to make sure scientific standards are met.

The purpose of this post isn’t about hypotheses, data collection, and conclusions – well, not directly. This post examines an important aspect that many (if not most) people do not realize – verification.

Science is an appeal to the collective wisdom in order to build consensus. When a scientist or team of scientists announce a new discovery, a jury of their peers judge the claim. Not a collection of journalists, politicians, clergy, or random people off the street – a group of their peers. Geologists don’t judge information about a new vaccine. Neither do botanists, chemists, psychiatrists, physicists, or even the majority of biologists. Immunologists study the claim to either verify or discredit the new finding. Not just one group, but as many groups as possible. Not a group from the same lab, university, or institute, but by peers from all over the world.

In science, the burden of proof is on those making the claim – so it is the wisdom of the collective of specialists with PhDs that decide the validity. Verification is done at the geek level. Discrediting with evidence is part of the scientific process, therefore not a reason to find fault with science.

Verification is actually a continual process because something in the future may come forth to discredit what had been previously accepted. Verification is an important part of the scientific process – not a reason to find fault with science.

Continual verification is why science is based on evidence – and not on political, religious, cultural, or personal beliefs. The public should have faith in science because of faith in the process. If someone does not have faith in the process, they do not understand science. They are ignoring science in favor of a belief system outside of the scientific community. They are ignoring science as the poetry of reality.

On 66

This post bumped a weekend concert and more tidbits from Eastern Europe. So hey – it must be special!

In Language

gjashtëdhjetë e gjashtë (Albanian), šedesát šest (Czech), animnapu’t anim (Filipino), sessantasei (Italian), hatvanhat (Hungarian), sitta u sittin (Maltese), tse mashome a tšeletseng a metso e tšeletseng (Sesotho), oltmish olti (Uzbek), Mae chwe deg chwech (Welsh), LXVI (Roman)

In Mathematics

66 – an even integer, a sphenic number, a triangular number, a hexagonal number, a semi-meandric number, a semiperfect number, being a multiple of a perfect number, an Erdős–Woods number

In Science

M-66 – Messier object Spiral Galaxy in the constellation Leo

NCG-66 – (New General Catalogue) a spiral galaxy in the constellation Cetus

66 – the atomic number of the element dysprosium (Dy), whose neutrally charged atom contains 66 protons and 66 elections

66 – Chromosome number of the Gray Fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus)

In Computing

66 (more specifically 66.667) megahertz (MHz) is a common divisor of processor speed

In Geography

Photo from pexels.com

Route 66 – One of the most famous highways in the US going from Chicago to Los Angeles

I-66: – A US interstate connecting Washington, DC and I-81 near Middletown, Virginia

66 Parallel North – Crosses Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia, United States, Canada, and Iceland

66 Parallel South – Crosses Antarctica

66 Meridian East – Crosses Russia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, and Pakistan

66 Meridian West – Crosses Canada, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Brazil, Bolivia, Argentina, and Antarctica

In Business

Phillips 66 – a brand of gasoline and service station in the United States

Rum 66 – aged Bajan rum

Pier Sixty Six Hotel & Marina (Ft. Lauderdale, FL)

Sixty Six Pictures – an independent film production company in the UK

Sixty Six Brix – a catering company that specializes in frosted maple taffy (Toronto, ON)

Sixty Six Theater Company – a not-for-profit company (West Hollywood, CA)

66 N – a clothing manufacturer in Iceland

In Religion

66 – The total number of chapters in the Bible book of Isaiah

66 – The number of verses in Chapter 3 of the book of Lamentations in the Old Testament

66 – The total number of books in the Protestant edition of the Bible (Old Testament and New Testament) combined

Papyrus 66 – near complete codex of Gospel of John

66 – In Abjad numerals, the numeric value of the Name Of Allah

In Sports

From allfreevectors.com

66 – The number of the laps of the Spanish Grand Prix

66 Circle Option – the Pittsburgh Steelers play that resulting in the Immaculate Reception (click to see)

66 kg (145 pounds) – upper limit of featherweight boxing division

#66 – Retired Sports Jersey Numbers

  • MLB: Don Zimmer (Rays)
  • NBA: None
  • NFL: Bulldog Turner (Bears), Ray Nitschke (Packers)
  • NHL: Mario Lemieux (Penguins)

NASCAR #66: 732 races, driven by 103 different drivers, 1 win (Larry Frank, 1962)

In Entertainment

In Film

66th Academy Awards – Held in 1994 honoring films released in 1993. Major winners Schindler’s List (Steven Spielberg, director & winner), Tom Hanks (Philadelphia), and Holly Hunter (The Piano)

Sixty Six – a 2006 British movie about a bar mitzvah in London on the day of the 1966 World Cup final starring Eddie Marsan and Helena Bonham Carter

Order 66 – In the Star Wars movie series, a prepared order to the clone troopers to kill the Jedi commanding them

In Television & Radio

Route 66 – a popular US television series on CBS from 1960 to 1964

66 WNBC radio – a popular New York radio station, which became WFAN on 1 July 1987

In Music

Image from vector-images.com

Route 66 – Nat King Cole, Chuck Berry, Bing Crosby, James Mayer, Brian Setzer, Harry James, Rolling Stones … but my favorite is this one

Opus 66 – Tchaikovsky’s Sleeping Beauty and Chopin’s Fantaisie Impromptu

(Albums) Sixty Six Steps (Leo Kottke & Mike Gordon); Sixty Six to Timbuktu (Robert Plant); Combo 66 (John Scofield)

OMG 66 – song title by Lil B

66 – The number of songs on Bruce Springsteen box set released 1998

Le 66 – a one-act opérette by Jacques Offenbach and Pitaud de Forges and Laurencin

The Sixty-Six, the New Jersey-based rock band founded by Scott Liss

66 ft. – a song by Lil Yachty featuring Trippie Redd from Yachty’s studio album Lil Boat 2

In Literature

Sixty-Six (novel), a novel by film director Barry Levinson

The 66 Laws of the Illuminati: The Secrets of Success (House of Illuminati); A Shade of Vampire 66 (Bella Forest)

In History

Year 66 BC
  • a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar known as the Year of the Consulship of Lepidus and Tullus
  • known less frequently, year 688 Ab urbe condita
Year 66 AD
  • A common year starting on Wednesday
  • Emperor Nero ruling Rome
  • The Jewish Revolt against the Roman Empire begins
  • The Sicarii capture the fortress of Masada overlooking the Dead Sea.

Miscellaneous

Alpha 66 – an anti-Castro terrorist group in Miami

Flight 66 – Eastern Airline flight from New Orleans crashing on approach to NYC-JFK on 24 June 1975

66 in (167.6 cm) – average height of Neanderthal males

66th Congress – served 1919-1921, the last 2 years of the Woodrow Wilson administration

Died at age 66: Davy Jones, Tom Clancy, Michael Crichton, Hubert Humphrey, Marie Curie, Carlo Ponzi, John Steinbeck, Lizzie Borden, James Thurber, Dudley Moore, Indira Gandhi

66 – The international direct dialing (IDD) code for Thailand

66 block – used to organize telephone lines In telecommunications

Sixty-six – a German card game

Solo 66 – a card game involving 5 players competing for tricks

Series 66 Exam – qualifies people as investment adviser representatives or securities agents

Cell 66 – In the video game Fullmetal Alchemist, elusive villain Barry the Chopper imprisoned cell number 66, which later becomes his alias when battling the brothers at Laboratory Five

66 – the age I become today. Happy Birthday to me. Yep, on the 46th day of 1953 (for the record, a Tuesday), yours truly came into being

Happy 66th Birthday Frank from Mini-Me

 

I can’t believe it! Look who has stopped to sing a song she wrote about me!

https://youtu.be/KNZH-emehxA

On 90

In Language – 90 is ninety, nëntëdhjetë (Albanian), noranta (Catalan), novanta (Italian), devetdeset (Slovenian), naw deg (Welsh), and XC (Roman numerals)

In Mathematics

90 – divisible by 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, 15, 18, 30, 45, 90

90 – a natural number, unitary perfect number, a semiperfect number, a pronic number, a nontotient number, a Perrin number, a Harshad number, and a palindromic number and a repdigit in bases 14, 17, 29, and 44

90 – the number of degrees in a right angle

In Science

90 – the atomic number of thorium (Th), whose neutrally charged atom contains 90 protons and 90 electrons

90 – the number of chromosomes in cells of moonworts, African hedgehog, Grape fern, and Sweet potato

In Sports

Nike Total 90 Apparel – a brand name of football apparel and equipment

90 feet – the distance between bases on a Major League Baseball diamond (27 m)

90 – the car number most associated with former NASCAR team owner Junie Donlavey

90 – the number of minutes in a football (soccer) match

90 Retired sports numbers: only NFL: Dennis Byrd (NY Jets)

In Geography

Photo from pexels.com

90 – the latitude in degrees of the North and the South geographical poles

90th Meridian West crosses land in Canada, United States, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador

90th Meridian East crosses land in Russia, Mongolia, China, Bhutan, India, and Bangladesh

I-90 – the longest interstate highway in the US system (3,020.54 miles/4,861.09 km) connecting Seattle and Boston

90 – national highways in Canada, Israel, New Zealand, and the United States

In Entertainment

Joe 90 – a sci-fi series on British television (1968-1969)

90th Academy Awards (2017) with Shape of Water winning 4 Oscars

Image from vector-images.com

In Music

Route 90 (Johnny Winter)

The Ninety and Nine (Tennessee Ernie Ford)

‘90s is not 90

In Literature

The First 90 Days (Michael Watkins)

90 Minutes in Heaven (Don Piper and Cecil Murphey)

90 Miles to Havana (Enrique Flores-Galbis)

Ninety Percent Mental: An All-Star Player Turned Mental Skills Coach Reveals the Hidden Game of Baseball (Bob Tewksbury and Scott Miller)

Ninety Degrees North: The Quest for the North Pole (Fergus Fleming)

In Business

90 Minute IPA (an ale brewed by Dogfish Head Brewery)

90+ Cellars (an online wine retailer)

In History

Year 90 CE

  • A common year starting on a Friday
  • Assyrian calendar year 4850, Discordian calendar year, 1256, Holocene calendar year 10090
  • Cologne becomes the capital of Germania Inferior
  • Young Flavian Woman sculpture made (now kept at Musei Capitolini, Rome)
  • Drafting of the Gospel of John and the Acts of the Apostles
  • Born – Ptolemy, Greek mathematician, geographer, astronomer, and astrologer (d. c. 168)

Year 90 BC

  • Ab urbe condita calendar year 664, Korean calendar year 2244, Holocene calendar year 9911, Berber calendar year 861
  • Rome grants the Etruscans Roman citizenship
  • Cicero starts to serve in the Roman army

Miscellaneous

90 – the calling code for international direct-dial phone calls to Turkey

Change 90 – a right-wing political party in Peru

90 proof – the measure of alcohol in Maker’s Mark Bourbon

GE 90 – a family of jet engines built by GE Aviation in Cincinnati

TAZ 90 – the camouflage pattern used as on the battle dress of the Swiss Armed Forces

90 – how old my mother would be if still living today (she died in 1984). Her birthday was a month ago (23rd Sept), and the day our Eastern Europe tour started.

This song does not have any version of ninety in the title, but my mother would have loved this singer and his son. Thinking of her when I first watched this video caused a few tears.

On an Awesome Journey

Breaking News

I interrupt previously announced posting because of important news. Iceland posts will be delayed. The post about Reykjavik will publish Sunday evening (Eastern US), then the post about travel tips for Iceland will be Tuesday evening (Eastern US).

Long-time visitors know my fascination with images of deep space – such as those from the Hubble Telescope. After all, I use them as headers here. (Click here for past headers or click the Past Headers tab for my page dedicated to past headers.)

The magical and mystical nature of deep space image give me a special sense of the grand nature of creation – the universe we live in.

The Friday morning news featured a clip of a video from the Hubble Telescope team. I immediately knew I had to use it here. It is an animated fly-through of the Orion Nebula – a place featured in multiple headers. The video is a worthy 3 minutes and I recommend viewing it on full screen. Enjoy.

Addition (10:15 AM): For some, the video promotes reflection. If so, please share in your comment.

On a Book Review in a Hurry

Embed from Getty Images

Neil deGrasse Tyson is a rock star to many people – definitely an odd descriptor for an astrophysicist who is Director of the Hayden Planetarium at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. Many consider him to be today’s Carl Sagan – and I find it interesting that (at least to me) he talks and sounds like Dr. Sagan.

No matter in his role as director, author, speaker, interviewee, or television show host, Dr. deGrasse Tyson exudes enthusiasm and commitment to his craft and passion – science – just as Carl Sagan did.

Images of deep space capture a sense of awesome for me – which is one of the reasons I use them as headers on this blog. (Click here to see past headers.) As a geek interested in the intersection of science and religion, those images give me a greater sense of creation. These points, along with interviews I saw with Dr. deGrasse Tyson, his 2017 book became a must-read for me.

Astrophysics for People in a Hurry is a short read (about 200 pages) that made it to the top of the New York Times Best-Seller list. This book is about time, space, particles, forces, and how they fit together in the universe according to the laws of the universe. Yes, he takes readers into complex topics as the Big Bang, dark matter, and dark energy – but he does it with relative simplicity with wit, real-world application, and enthusiasm. Even with his wit and understandable writing style, the topic isn’t naturally easy for all – so I had head scratching.

Logically-sequenced chapters are short with each focusing on a single topic. His easy-to-read text aims at an audience that doesn’t know much astrophysics. The text doesn’t contain new, groundbreaking information, so I consider this book as a primer that can lead to deeper learning if one chooses. (Like a 101 college course that serves as an introduction and springboard.)

Neil deGrasse Tyson is an excellent communicator and I can hear his voice in his words. This booked helped me understand my awe with deep space and creation. He promotes the cosmic perspective from the frontiers; which he describes as humbling, spiritual, redemptive, mind opening, eye opening, transcending, wise, insightful, finding beauty, enabling one to see beyond in order to embrace chemical and genetic kinship, and more. Now that is for me!

I encourage readers to take the time to embrace Astrophysics for People in a Hurry. Besides, it could be a stocking stuffer as a holiday gift. Here’s the link for the book on Amazon.

I end this review with a fantastic video on a similar topic from Symphony of Science featuring Neil deGrasse Tyson.

On Aspects of Science

Embed from Getty Images

Science – the search for the explanation of what we observe in nature.

Science – a body of organized knowledge that describes the properties and interactions of the material components of the universe.

Science – a human endeavor limited to the human perspective seeking to understand and explain phenomena occurring in the natural world and the laboratory.

Science – a dynamic (not static) intellectual human endeavor leading us to a deeper understanding of the natural world.

Science – an impersonal process requiring a trained mind with passion, imagination, and patience for details to find patterns, structure, connections, and history within nature.

Science – a data-gathering process so we can better understand ourselves, the natural world around us, and our place in this world.

Science – a process with accepted methodologies trained mind works uses while fighting misconceptions, mistaken observations, and inadequate conclusions.

Science – an intellectual activity using the senses and technology to extend the senses for gathering data to develop an explanation based on evidence and what is already known.

Science – a process and activity requiring a conscious mind that observes, inquires, organizes, interprets, understands, and a willingness to follow acceptable scientific methodologies while staying within nature’s boundaries – yet that does not mean that nothing exists outside of nature’s boundaries.

Science – the study of the material, processes, and forces of the natural world.

Science – not a belief system, but a learning system involving the exploration of natural causes to explain natural phenomena through systemic processes and procedures.

Science – an empirical human endeavor by establishing questions of truth through experimenting and testing without absolutes while remaining open to retesting and reconsideration.

Science – a gift as it brings us new knowledge, yet knowledge that is only for a given point in time because it can change based on newer knowledge. Because of potential development of new knowledge, science must be willing to have what is currently known to be proven wrong.

Science – a system giving us gives theories: a structure of ideas based on large amounts of evidence that explain and interpret numerous facts about a concept – therefore, well beyond a personal opinion or a detective’s hunch.

Science – a habit of mind of careful sifting of data and withholding of final judgment.

Embed from Getty Images

Science – a methodology that does not make moral, ethical, and value judgments for society because those judgments are made by society.

Science – a way of knowing, but not the only way because science does not corner the way to truth about everything. Philosophical, theological, psychological/emotional, ethical, political, and historical views provide additional perspectives, yet each discipline is selective and limited.

Science – an activity bringing forth new issues causing humanity to face moral and ethical questions – whose answers science does not provide because it is neither equipped nor competent to answer ethical and moral questions, let alone the metaphysical, philosophical, or theological questions as “what is the meaning of life”, “why am I here”, and “is there a god?”

Embed from Getty Images

Science – a process with recognized limitations. Science does not state how to use its knowledge. Science does not make value judgments. Science is limited to studying in nature. Science is limited to our ability to observe, including technology’s limitations. Science does not operate outside of its defined methodologies.

Science – a study that is limited to itself. Science cannot prove or disprove God’s existence because that question/topic lies outside science’s self-imposed boundaries of the observable events in the natural world around us.

Science – a study that should be embraced by all.