On the USA as a Christian Nation: Part 4 of 4 – My Conclusion

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The purpose of this series is obvious: To examine the notion that the United States of America was founded as a Christian nation, or at least on Christian values and principles. The focus of the previous three posts were the following:

This post (Part 4) focuses on my conclusions and thoughts based on my research. Unlike the previous posts in this series, my thoughts are debatable and subject to agreement and disagreement. Keep in mind that each paragraph stands alone as part of a list – not as flowing text. I numbered the points for easy identification.

Concluding Statements

1) Most of the Framers were either born in a portion of the current United Kingdom (UK) or born of parents from the UK – a place holding a connection between God and Liberty – and a place that was predominantly Christian. The same would be the same for those from the Colonies. The God and Liberty concept is based on the inalienable rights of equality coming from God, so liberty is a God-given right (yet some of these Framers had slaves).  From there, it is up to the people in their life and government to use their goodness and virtue to act for the common good of all.

2) Using their Christian-Judeo background, experiences, knowledge of European democracy, and cognitive reasoning, the Framers established a new paradigm known as the US Constitution to differentiate itself from England.

3) The Framers recognized religious influence on English Common Law and in daily life. After all, Blue Laws keeping businesses closed on Sundays were common place for nearly 200 years. The Christian notion of marriage is well established, only to be recently redefined by the Supreme Court.

4) Although the list could go on, the USA being founded on Christian principles/values should not be denied. Then again, there are numerous principles/values that Christians share with multiple religions as well as various non-believer groups as atheists and agnostics. Many principles/values could be considered as secular or simply common to humanity. Therefore, although they may be rooted in Christianity, the founding documents do not promote uniquely Christian principles/values.

5) The relationship between God and Liberty in the US Constitution is clear to me – but not in the same way as others may see it. The Framers saw “unalienable rights” as life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness coming from a higher power than human government – not necessarily the Christian God – but rather the god of one’s choosing if they have one.

6) Whereas the Puritans foresaw a strict religious state, other religious leaders during Colonial times (as William Penn and Roger Williams) envisioned religious tolerance as something good – and through their actions and the First Amendment, America became a place for numerous religious minorities.

10) The Framers used generic language to be inclusive. As America grew into a melting pot of diversity, those unalienable right were for Jews, Muslims, Buddhists, Hindus, Sikhs, Secularists, Humanists, Atheists, Agnostics, Christians, and whoever I unintentionally left out.

11) The union between religion and politics is not new because their relationship in America is older than the country itself. During the foundation period of this new country, religious groups influenced the process. Just because some groups desired a Christian nation then and that some groups desire the same today does not mean the United States was established as a Christian nation.

12) The people established the United States of America with a government that is neutral on religion while leaving religious decisions to individuals – not to the federal government, not to any state, not to any political party, and not to any religious organization. Again – the right is to individuals.

When the underlying principle has been examined in the crucible of litigation, the Court has unambiguously concluded that the individual freedom of conscience protected by the First Amendment embraces the right to select any religious faith or not at all.Justice John Paul Stevens in Lee v. Weisman (1992)

13) The notion of a “Christian America” is a myth. The United States of America was not founded as a Christian nation – it never has been a Christian nation – and is not now! If the framers intended to create a Christian nation, would wouldn’t documents say so? Wouldn’t the intent be overtly obvious?

14) Some of the Framers were outward men of faith – others simply men of private prayer and reflection – and others with no religious belief . Nonetheless, these men sought who intentionally sought religion neutrality. Just as enthusiastic theists can extrapolate references and phrases involving words as God, Creator, and more; others can easily apply the same words in a generic context with an understanding of the god they worship – and without endorsing a particular religion.

The Bottom Line

Today, leaders within the Christian Right continue to perpetuate the myth by cherry-picking data, stretching correlations, and disregarding inconvenient details. No matter the eloquence in their words, anyone stretching the words of our founding documents into Biblical reference is attempting to impose their belief system onto others through politics. Sadly, opinions on the USA as a Christian nation can be aligned with political parties.

Yes – I am Christian – but in no way do I subscribe that branch of Christian thought. As a matter of fact, I am confident the “Christian America” myth is a minority view within American Christianity. There probably also a strong correlation between those promoting the myth and their selfish view of religious liberty.  Perhaps this myth is similar to that of biological evolution – that is, people think they know, but they actually don’t.

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On the USA as a Christian Nation: Part 3 of 4 – The No

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Question 2: Was the United States of America founded as a Christian nation?

The idea that the United States was founded as a Christian nation has been around since the country’s inception. Whereas the previous post listed the reasons supporting the claim, the purpose of this post is not to debate the issue, but to provide reasons for saying NO – the United States was not founded as a Christian nation. I welcome discussion and comments, but ask commenters to stay on topic. I numbered the reasons for easy identification. The next post will provide my concluding statements about this topic that are debatable.

Reasons Why the USA was Not founded as a Christian Nation

1) The Framers had the benefit of hundreds of years of history to develop a government – a history with the state persecuting religion – a history including the church controlling the state

2) Although six colonies were founded with official religions, no states have official religions

3) Just because some of the Framers were Christian is a fact about the framers, and nothing to do with the USA being a Christian nation

4) Other than personal writings, there is no definitive evidence of the Framers’ intent to establish a Christian nation

5) Examining individual writings does not provide Framer’s intent – but rather provides insight into the individual’s belief system

6) The Revolutionary War was not a religious event – although freedom of religion movement did piggyback the freedom for liberty movement

7) The Declaration of Independence uses “Creator” – but that is a term accepted by Christians, Jews, Muslims, Deists, Secularists, and others

8) Implying the three branches of Federal government established in the US Constitution directly correlates with Isaiah 33:22 is one example (of many) that are disparate attempts to establish the USA as a Christian nation (The Lord is judge, the Lord is our ruler, and the Lord is our king; he will save us.)

9) Although some states included religious preferences for elected officials, Article VI clearly states, “ … but no religious test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trusts under the United States” – which the US Supreme Court has upheld.

10) The Bible does not include any covenant between God and the United States

11) The US Constitution does not mention “God”, “Christ”, “Jesus”, or “Jesus Christ”

12) The Declaration of Independence, US Constitution, and any of the Federalist Papers lack Biblical references, direct references to the Ten Commandments, Christianity, Jesus Christ, and Jesus Christ being Savior

13) Although elected presidents may include “So help me God” to conclude their oath into office, those four words are not a Constitutional requirement (Article 2, Section 1)

14) Even if the Framers established the US Constitution on Christian values and principles, this does not imply the USA is a Christian nation

15) Demographics of the country at any point in time is meaningless to the discussion because the documents matter

16) Placing “In God We Trust” on money started in 1861 with roots in the Civil War – not the country’s founding

17) Including “One nation under God” into the Pledge of Allegiance occurred in 1954 as a response to Soviet Communism – not the country’s founding

18) One should not confuse cultural heritage with Biblical Christianity

19) After the Constitution became established, some religious groups called it “blasphemous” while urging formal recognition of Christianity into the Constitution. Organizations as the National Reform Association sought a Constitutional Amendment in 1864 to officially establish America as a Christian nation. Additional sizable movements also occurred in the 1950s and 1960s – and these beliefs still exist today.

20) Treaty of Tripoli (1797), which the Senate ratified and President Adams signed, clearly states, “ The Government of the United States of America is not, in any sense, founded on the Christian religion.”

Next post: My personal concluding statements

On the USA as a Christian Nation: Part 2 of 4 – The Yes

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Question 2: Was the United States of America founded as a Christian nation?

This is not a new question. Some Americans think so – other think not. While the majority of Americans have been Christians for the vast majority (if not all) of the nation’s history, I aim this question at those saying the USA is officially Christian because the Framers intended to give special recognition of Christianity through its government.

The purpose of this post is not to debate the issue, but to provide reasons for saying YES – the United States was founded as a Christian nation. I welcome discussion and comments, but ask commenters to stay on topic. I numbered the reasons for easy identification. For the record, the No list is the next post.

Reasons Why the USA is a Christian Nation

1) The Puritans saw the New World (while founding the Massachusetts Bay Colony) as the New Israel – the New Jerusalem

2) Christianity was the predominant religion in colonial America – and their European roots were based in Christianity; so they naturally applied Christian/Biblical principles

3) The majority of the Framers were Christian

4) Writings by individual Framers provide evidence – such as

The moral principles and precepts contained in the scriptures ought to form the basis of all our civic constitutions and laws. All the miseries and evils which men suffer from vice, crim, ambition, injustice, oppression, slavery, and war – proceed from their despising or neglecting the precepts contained in the Bible.” (Noah Webster)

Providence has given to our people the choice of their rulers; and it is the duty – as well as the privilege and interest of our Christian nation to select and prefer Christians for their rulers.” (John Jay)

The general principles on which the fathers achieved independence were the general principles of Christianity. I will avow that I then believed, and now believe, that those general principles of Christianity are as eternal and immutable as the existence and attributes of God.” (John Adams)

5) Phrases as “In God We Trust and “One Nation under God” support Christianity

6) Eight of the original 13 colonies acknowledged Christianity in their colonial charters

7) The Declaration of Independence includes “Laws of nature and nature’s God” and “Endowed by their Creator”

8) The Article of Confederation (the precursor to the US Constitution) stated, “The Great Governor of the world”

9) The US Constitution establishes the Presidential Oath and many presidents say, “So help me God”

10) The US Constitution concludes with “In the year of the Lord.”

11) An early act of Congress (1782) promoted the Bible for circulation to and use in schools

12) Treaty of Paris (1784) is the negotiated agreement between the United States and Great Britain ending the Revolutionary War and recognizing the United States of America as a sovereign, independent nation.

In the name of the Most Holy and Undivided Trinity. It have pleased the Divine Providence to dispose the hearts of the most serene and most potent Prince George the Third, by the Grace of God, King of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, …. And of the United States of America, to forget all past misunderstandings and the differences.”

13) USA as a Christian nation is part of its identity

14) One can produce numerous parallels correlating the US Constitution and the Bible

15) In Holy Trinity v. United States (1892), Justice David Brewer writes for the majority of the court:

These, and many other matters which might be noticed, add a volume of unofficial declarations to the mass of organic utterances that this is a Christian nation. In the face of all these, shall it be believed that a Congress of the United States intended to make it a misdemeanor for a church of this country to contract for the services of a Christian minister residing in another nation?

Next Post: Reasons why the United States is not a Christian Nation.

On the USA as a Christian Nation: Part 1 of 4 – The Principles

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While in a class at church sometime in 2017, a classmate made a statement causing me to wince. To be fair, I can’t totally recall the exact statement, but it was one of these two: The United States being founded as a Christian nation or as one founded on Christian principles. (Personally, I think it was the latter.)

Fortunately, the idea wasn’t new to me because I’ve encountered such thoughts in my extensive study of the interchange between science and religion. However, this person’s statement increased my desire to want to know more – and now I’m ready to write posts about this issue.

This series of four consecutive daily posts will examine Christian principles/values, reasons for believing the United States was founded as a Christian nation, reasons against the thought, and my concluding statement.

Question 1: Was the United States of America founded on Christian principles?

To for those saying YES, I pose this question: Which principles? (I’ll make it easy, here’s a list.)

One God?
God as Creator of the universe?
God, the one with the final authority?
People are sinners?
Liberty as a God-given right?
Love the neighbor?
Honoring parents?
Doing no harm?
Being slow to anger, renouncing vengeance, and respecting life?
The Golden Rule?
Worship is personal; so no government will tell anyone how to worship?
Good citizenship?
Good moral behavior?
Favoring giving over receiving?
Community relationship with others?
Spiritual relationship with God?
God establishes truth?
Respect of others?
Respect of freedom of thought and expression?
Passing on traditions from one generation to the next?
Acting for the common good?
Civic responsibility?
Prudence?
Justice?
Temperance/restraint?
Grace?
Courage?
Faith?
Honesty?
Hope?
Charity?
Service?
Forgiveness?
Life everlasting?
The Resurrection?
The Holy Trinity?
The Day of Salvation?
The Ten Commandments?
Love, mercy, and forgiveness through the cross?
The Holy Bible as the guide for faith and practice?
Stewardship to others and to our surroundings?
Declaring Jesus Christ as Savior and Lord?

For anyone saying YES to any of the above, can you correlate these to the US Constitution? Is this list uniquely Christian?

Next post: Reasons why the United States is a Christian nation

On 41

In Science
41, the atomic number of the element niobium (Nb), whose neutrally charged atom has 41 protons and 41 electrons

41 Daphne is a large asteroid

In Music
Symphony No. 41, the longest and last symphony of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

#41, a song by Dave Matthews Band.

Sum 41, a Canadian rock band

American Skin (41 Shots), a song by Bruce Springsteen

Opus 41, musical compositions by Tchaikovsky (Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom), Elgar (In the Dawn and Speak, Music!), Sibelius (Kyllikki), and Rachmaninoff (Three Russian Songs)

Fabric 41, a 2008 album by Luciano

In Literature
Sonnet 41, one of William Shakespeare’s 154 sonnets http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/sonnet/41

41 Stories, a book of 41 short stories by O. Henry

41: A Portrait of My Father, a book written by George W. Bush for his father George H. W. Bush

In Movies
41, an independent documentary about Nicholas O’Neill, the youngest victim of the Station nightclub fire

41, a 2012 Documentary about on the life of George H. W. Bush, the 41st US President

41, Charlton Heston’s designation as a Roman warship slave in Ben-Hur

41st floor, Morpheus is aggressively questioned about the murder of Amadou Diallo in The Matrix

41, the NYPD precinct number on the police car shown during the earthquake in Ghostbusters

Highway 41, where Cary Grant is attached by a crop-dusting airplane in Alfred Hitchcock’s North by Northwest

In Sports
41, the race number worn by Sir Roger Bannister when he broke the 4-minute mile barrier (1954)

41, retired jerseys – MLB: Eddie Mathews (Braves), Tom Seaver (Mets); NFL: Brian Piccolo (Bears); NBA: Wes Unseld (Wizards); NHL: none

NASCAR #41: 27 wins (most by Curtis Turner, followed by Richard Petty, Kurt Busch, Jim Paschal, and A.J. Foyt)

Super Bowl XLI: Indianapolis Colts 29 Chicago Bears 17 (4 Feb. 2007 Miami, Florida)

In Mathematics
41, a natural number, a prime number, a supersingular prime number, a Newman-Shanks-Williams prime number, a Sophie Germain prime number, and Eisenstein prime number, a Proth prime number, a centered square number, and the largest lucky number of Euler

41, only divisible by 1 and 41

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In History

41 AD

  • a common year starting on Sunday
  • Holocene calendar year 10041, Korean calendar year 2374, Discordian calendar year 1207
  • Claudius succeeds his nephew (Caligula) as Emperor
  • Claudius restores religious freedom to Jews throughout the empire, but prohibits Jews in Rome from proselytising
  • Emperor Guangwu of the Han dynasty deposes his wife
  • The disciples of Jesus form Christian communities in Damascus and Antioch

41 BC

  • Either a common year starting on Wednesday or Thursday or a leap year starting on Tuesday, Wednesday or Thursday
  • Buddhist calendar year 504, Ab urbe condita calendar year 713, Assyrian calendar year 4710
  • Year of the Perusine War
  • Mark Antony meets Cleopatra in Tarsus and formed an alliance
  • Arsinoe IV of Egypt (Cleopatra’s half-sister) dies

In US History
Bush 41, George H. W. Bush, the 41st President of the United States

Montana, the 41st state of the United States

Federalist Paper No. 41, a general view of the Powers Conferred by the Constitution (written by James Madison) http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/fed41.asp

41, the number of members in the U.S. Senate needed to defeat a cloture vote and sustain a filibuster indefinitely

In Geography
Interstate 41, a highway connecting Chicago, Illinois and Green Bay, Wisconsin

41st Street in Manhattan – click for a walking tour http://www.nysonglines.com/41st.htm

41st parallel North – crosses Span, Italy, Albania, Macedonia, Greece, Turkey, Armenia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, China, North Korea, Japan, United States, Portugal

41st parallel South – crosses Australia, New Zealand, Chile, Argentina

41st Meridian East – crosses Russia, Georgia, Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, and Antarctica

41st Meridian West – crosses Greenland, Brazil, Antarctica

In Culture
41, forty-one, Cuarenta y uno, Čtyřicet jedna, Eenenveertig, Nelikümmend üks, Keturiasdešimt vieną, Afartan mid ka mid ah, XLI, and more

In Mexico “cuarenta y uno” (41) is slang referring to a homosexual

41st book in the bible is the Gospel According to Matthew

41st wedding anniversary, traditional gifts throughout the world include topaz, iron, birch, and nasturtium

In numerology, 41 is conscientious, sensual, quick wit, adventurous, curiosity, and pragmatism

In Organizations
41 Entertainment LLC (“41E”), a privately held American animation company developing, producing, and distributing popular children’s television series

City 41, part of the leading news media group of Pakistan, City News Network

41 Hotel or No. 41, a Red Carnation Hotel luxury hotel in London, England

Foundation 41, a medical research organisation based in Sydney, Australia

In Miscellaneous
The international direct dialing (IDD) code for Switzerland

C-41 process is the film developing process for 35mm color negative film

41 stories, the number of floors in the ONE St. Petersburg building in St. Petersburg, Florida

“41 for Freedom”, the collective term for the 41 ballistic missile submarines of the George Washington class and its successors

STS-41, the eleventh mission of the Space Shuttle Discovery

Season 41 of Saturday Night Live, 2014-15

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41, all this in honor of our 41st wedding anniversary. For those wondering, we first met in September 1974. Here’s Dave Matthews singing his song, #41. Happy Anniversary to my long-time love.

On 39

Image from cooltext.com

Image from cooltext.com

April 2, 1977 – that was the day of our wedding in a Cleveland (Ohio) suburb. It was cross-state from my home, but a good group of my family and friends attended.

I graduated the previous June, then came to Cincinnati for my first job. She graduated a few weeks before the wedding, then joined me in Cincinnati after our honeymoon in Hilton Head, SC.

Since then, she knows I love trivia – or in her terms – useless information – this is the perfect post for our celebration – more useless information the number 39 in one place than one ever imagined. Yep – I’m quite the romantic.

In Language
Тридесет девет (Bulgarian), Trenta nove (Italian), Tridsať deväť (Slovak), Trettio nio (Swedish), Ba mươi chín (Vietnamese), XXXIX (Roman numerals) … Know any others?

In Mathematics
39 – a natural number, an odd integer that is divisible by 1, 3, 13, and 39

39 – a distinct semiprime number, a Perfect totient number, a Perrin number, Størmer number

39 – the number of edges on a F26A graph

39 – the sum of consecutive primes (3 + 5 + 7 + 11 + 13) and the product of the second and sixth prime (3 x 13)

Image from cooltext.com

Image from cooltext.com

In Chemistry
39 – the atomic number of yttrium, whose neutrally charged atom has 39 protons and 39 electrons

In Biology
Brodmann area 39 (BA39) – part of the human brain’s parietal cortex

39 – Number of chromosome pairs in the cells of African wild dogs, Chickens, Coyotes, Dholes, Dingos, Dogs, Doves, and Golden Jackal

In Astronomy
39 – the Saros series number for 73 lunar eclipses over 1298.1 years

39 – the star number that is in many constellations including Andromeda, Aquarius, Auriga, Boötes,Cancer, Draco, Eridanus, and more

In Religion
39 – according to Halakha, the number of activity categories prohibited on Shabbat

39 – the number of mentions of work or labor in the Torah

39 – the actual number of lashes given by the Sanhedrin to a person meted the punishment of 40 lashes

39 – according to Protestant canon, the number of books in the Old Testament

39 – the number of statements in Anglican Church doctrine known as the Thirty-Nine Articles

Papyrus 39 – an early papyrus manuscript of the New Testament in Greek of the Gospel of John, but only John 8:14-22

Psalm 39 (Prayer for Wisdom and Forgiveness)

39 – other than numerical designations for pages, chapters, etc, 39 does not directly appear in the Bible

Image from cooltext.com

Image from cooltext.com

In Arts and Entertainment
39 – Comedian Jack Benny’s perpetual age after 40

39th Tony Awards – winner include Biloxi Blues, Big River, and A Day in the Death of Joe Egg

In Literature
The Thirty-Nine Steps – a novel by John Buchan (1915), which has been transformed into multiple films (info later), a play, a television feature, and a video game

The 39 Clues – a book series revolving around 39 clues hidden around the world.

Sonnet 39 by William Shakespeare

In Television
39 – the number of days contestants compete on Survivor (the CBS reality show)

39 – the number of episodes done the 1955-1956 season of The Honeymooners (commonly referred to as the “Classic 39”).

The 39 Steps is a 2008 BBC adventure feature-length adaptation of the John Buchan novel The Thirty-Nine Steps

39th Emmys – winners included Golden Girls (Best Comedy) and L.A. Law (Best Drama)

Image from cooltext.com

Image from cooltext.com

In Film
Based on The Thirty-Nine Steps – the novel by John Buchan (1915) – are four versions:

  • The 39 Steps (1935 film), directed by Alfred Hitchcock
  • The 39 Steps (1959 film), directed by Ralph Thomas
  • The Thirty Nine Steps (1978 film), directed by Don Sharp
  • The 39 Steps (2008 film), directed by James Hawes

Glorious 39 – a 2009 drama film set at the beginning of World War II

39th Academy Awards – Oscars go to A Man for All Seasons (Best Picture), Fred Zinnemann (Best Actor), and Elizabeth Taylor (Best Actress)

39 Steps (band), a rock band appearing in Woody Allen’s film Hannah and Her Sisters

In Music
39 – a song by The Cure and Tenacious D

FabricLive.39 – a 2008 mix album by DJ Yoda

Fabric 39 – a 2008 album by Robert Hood.

39 Steps – an album by guitarist John Abercrombie (2013)

Now 39 (aka Now That’s What I Call Music! 39) – the 39th release of music featuring top singles i the UK.

Symphony No. 39 in G minor – written by Joseph Haydn 1767/1768)

Image from cooltext.com

Image from cooltext.com

In World History
39 – Forty save one: the traditional number of times citizens of Ancient Rome hit their slaves

39 – the duration (in nanoseconds) of the nuclear reaction in the largest nuclear explosion ever (the Russian Tsar Bomba detonated on 30 October 1961)

39 – the number of Scud missiles Iraq fired at Israel during the Gulf War (1991)

Year 39 CE

  • A common year starting on Thursday
  • Tigellinus, minister and favorite of the Roman emperor Nero, is banished for adultery with Caligula’s sisters.
  • Philo leads a Jewish delegation to Rome to protest the anti-Jewish conditions in Alexandria.
  • The Trung Sisters resist the Chinese influences in Vietnam.
  • Born – Lucan (Roman poet) and Titus Flavius (future Roman emperor)
  • Deaths – Seneca the Elder (Roman rhetorician)

Year 39 BC

  • A common year starting on Friday, Saturday or Sunday or a leap year starting on Saturday
  • Sextus Pompey (self-proclaimed “son of Neptune”) controlled Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica
  • Born – Antonia Major (daughter of Mark Antony, grandmother of Nero and Messalin),
    Julia the Elder (daughter of Caesar Augustus)

In US History
39 – the number of signers to the United States Constitution

39th President of the United States – Jimmy Carter

Number 39 – the Federalist Paper essay by James Madison describing the nature of the United States government as a new idea. (The Conformity of the Plan to Republican Principles,
published January 18, 1788)

Title 39 – the United States Code outlining the role of United States Postal Service

39th Congress – served from 4 March 1865 – 4 March 1867 during the presidencies of Abraham Lincoln (1 month) and Andrew Johnson

Image from cooltext.com

Image from cooltext.com

In Sports
39 – the number of wooden boards normally consisting a bowling lane

Retired #39 Uniforms
MLB – Roy Campanella (Dodgers)
NFL – Larry Csonka (Dolphins)
NBA – none
NHL – Dominik Hašek (Sabres)

Super Bowl XXXIX – New England Patriots defeated the Philadelphia Eagles 24-21 on February 6, 2005 at Alltel Stadium in Jacksonville, Florida

NASCAR #39 – in 422 races, #39 won 4 races (all by Ryan Newman)

In Geography
39th Parallel north – crosses land in Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece, Turkey, Iran, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Iran, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, China, North Korea, Japan, and United States

39th Parallel south – crosses land in Australia, New Zealand, Chile, and Argentina

39th Meridian west – crosses land in Greenland and Brazil

39 Meridian east – crosses in Russia, Ukraine, Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Jordan, Saudi Arabia,Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Mozambique

National Highway 39 – found in Australia, Brazil, Canada, Czech Republic, France, Germany
India, Iran, Japan, South Korea, New Zealand, United Kingdom, and United States

Pier 39 – a shopping center and popular tourist attraction built on a pier in San Francisco, California

I-39 – a US interstate highway from Normal, Illinois to Wausau, Wisconsin

In Miscellaneous
The 39 Steps is video game adaptation of Buchan’s book

39 – the international code for direct-dialed phone calls to Italy

ICL Series 39 – a range of mainframe and minicomputer computer systems released by the UK manufacturer ICL in 1985

Curse of 39 – the belief in some parts of Afghanistan that the number 39 is cursed or a badge of shame associated with prostitution

39 – Japanese Internet chat slang for “Thank You” when written with numbers (3=San 9=Kyuu)

Lace – the traditional gift for a 39th wedding anniversary